More and more, residence life and education programs are moving to a curricular approach for their educational efforts, but what is a “curriculum”? In informal discourse the term “residential curriculum” is used to describe an intentional way of promoting learning in college and university residence life and education programs. A residential curriculum, however, is a very specific approach to structuring these learning opportunities. First implemented at the in the early 2000s, the Model was detailed in a 2006 article, “Beyond seat time and student satisfaction: A curricular approach to residential education,” in About Campus magazine. This approach lead to the establishments of ACPA’s Residential Curriculum Institute in 2007. Since then, the curricular approach has become increasingly common and popular. In his 2015 work, Student Learning in College Residence Halls, Gregory Blimling provides an overview of the curricular approach and related models for designing residential education initiatives. Outside of this, however, there is precious little literature addressing the theoretical foundations of model and its implementation, impact, and growth.
The Residential Curriculum Institute, however, has made progress in attempting to further define a true residential curriculum. The Institute describes a curriculum as incorporating “ten essential elements” (Edwards & Gardner, 2015):
Curricular approaches should be based in the mission of each institution. Therefore, every curriculum at each institution should be unique. This is not to say that there are not some common educational mission components across higher education, but each curriculum should be sensitive to institutional characteristics, academic foci, and student characteristics.
Desired learning should be documented in a cascade-from Institutional Mission to Educational Priority to Learning Goals to Learning Outcomes. Cascading goals and outcomes are logically connected, with each flowing into the next. This occurs from the broadest of educational objectives down to the individual level. The objectives should be clear and measurable.
Curricular approaches are based in developmental and learning theory. Baked into the core of a curriculum, learning models should be informed by the latest research on how students learn best and how to accommodate diverse learning styles and the unique needs of each learner. Professional staff implanting a curriculum should be well versed in theory and evidence-based practice.
Rather than deciding on a learning intervention first and then defining outcomes, the outcomes should instead drive what strategy is implemented. Some outcomes may be better suited to intentional conversations, while others may be best achieved through an experiential learning experience. Viewing all interactions and engagement through this lens broadens what strategies may be used to achieve outcomes beyond the traditional residence hall program.
For decades, the “program” has been the main unit of educational delivery in the residence halls. Effective learning models recognize that programs and events are only one strategy by which learning can be advanced in residential environments. When programming and events are used, they should be of high quality and targeted to the appropriate audience. It is better to have fewer, more strategic programs than many programs of lower quality that are ill-targeted.
Most student staff are not educational experts. They are often undergraduates with little formal education in designing learning environments and curricula. Because of this, educational planning should be accomplished by the professional staff who possess advanced degrees and are trained in these skill areas. Student staff are best utilized when their strengths in creativity, connecting to peers, and encouraging dialogue are engaged. Professional staff are best utilized when they are determining and developing educational plans and strategies.
Development occurs over time. Cognitive, interpersonal, and intrapersonal complexity increases as one experiences, learns, and grows. Effective learning models are built with this in mind. Learning can be sequenced as a student moves thorough their residential and/or educational experience. From month-to-month and from year-to year, learning should be scaffolded such that each learning opportunity builds off of the one prior. Opportunities should be provided with an appropriate level of challenge and support.
Campus partners are crucial to the development of a curriculum. Each partner or department possesses educational expertise in a number of areas that are valuable to the learning experience of students. Effectively implementing a curriculum requires one to recognize that collaborations and partnerships with experts across campus are necessary to be successful. It does not matter where a learning opportunity originates from, but how it fits into the overall learning plans.
Curricular plans should be reviewed by multiple advisors, stakeholders, and neutral partners-both within and outside of the organization. Through the review process, curricula can be improved by honing educational goals and outcomes and ensuring that learning plans and educational strategies are successful in achieving their stated objectives. Reviews should occur on an annual, semi-annual, or ongoing basis and should inform the overall evolution of the curriculum.
Assessment and the measurement of learning outcome achievement should be an integral part of the curricular process at all levels. Moving beyond student satisfaction and attendance figures, successful assessment of a residential curriculum should measure what students learned by participating in educational activities. Assessments should be contextualized and account for progression through the curriculum. Assessment activities would be ongoing as well as summative.
The previous ten elements are outlined at the beginning of ACPA-College Student Educators International’s Residential Curriculum Institute (RCI). The Institute, offered annually in the Fall, educates attendees on how to build a successful residential curriculum. Roompact is proud to be a sponsor of the Institute and is committed to providing campuses with digital tools to enhance student learning. Over the next series of posts, we will be exploring the ten elements in more depth. In order to learn and be trained in the approach, however, the Residential Curriculum Institute represents the best source for knowledge and implementation. If you are interested in attending RCI, you can find out additional details and register on the ACPA website.
Blimling, G. S. (2015). Student learning in college residence halls: What works, what doesn’t, and why. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Edwards, K. E., & Gardner, K. (2015, October 19). What is a residential curriculum? [PowerPoint slides]. Plenary session presented at the Residential Curriculum Institute, Indianapolis, IN.
This post is a part of our ongoing efforts to share research and insights into developing a residential curriculum. While these materials may help in providing a broad understanding what a curriculum entails, the ACPA Residential Curriculum Institute goes through step-by-step detail into how to enact these principles in your work. Roompact is a proud sponsor of the Residential Curriculum Institute. Our staff member, Paul Gordon Brown, also offers workshops and other consultative services related to a residential curriculum.
Posts About the 10 Essential Elements of a Residential Curriculum:
- What is a Residential Curriculum? Curricular Approach? Residential Learning Model?
- Element #2: Learning Goals and Outcomes Developed and Based in a Defined Educational Priority
- Element #3: Basis in Developmental Theory and Research
- Element #6: Student Staff Are Utilized in Roles Appropriate To Their Skill Development
- Element #7: Learning is Scaffolded and Sequenced To Follow Time-Based Development
- Element #10: Assessment Occurs at All Levels: From Educational Priority to Learning Goals and Outcomes
Further Reading on Developing a Residential Curriculum:
- The Challenge of Designing Apps for Programming Models and Residential Curriculum
- Resource List of Residential Curriculum Presentations from the Web
- The Opportunities and Challenges of a Social Media Residential Curriculum
- Incentivizing the Residential Curriculum by Matt Kwiatkowski
Residential Curriculum Institute:
- Recapping Day 1 of the 2016 Residential Curriculum Institute
- Recapping Day 2 of the 2016 Residential Curriculum Institute
- Recapping Day 3 of the 2016 Residential Curriculum Institute
- #ACPARCI 2014 Day 1 Twitter Recap
- #ACPARCI 2014 Day 2 Twitter Recap
- #ACPARCI 2014 Day 3 Twitter Recap
- Reflections on the 2014 Residential Curriculum Institute by Nicolas Babarskis
- #ACPARCI 2013 Twitter Recap by ebeeler
Schools Implementing A Curriculum:
Although there are many schools implementing curricular approaches to residential and student life, detailed information on these approaches can be difficult to find online. The following is a list of schools who provide their curricular frameworks and/or planning documents (including learning goals and outcomes, strategies, lesson plans, etc.) online. The most useful links are in bold.
- Carleton University
- The College or New Jersey
- College of Saint Benedict
- Clemson University (additional info: link)
- East Stroudsburg University
- East Tennessee State University
- Georgetown College
- Georgia Southern University (additional info: link)
- High Point University
- Indiana State University
- Indiana University Bloomington
- Lehigh University (additional info: link)
- Marshall University
- Miami University
- Milikin University
- North Dakota State University
- San Jose State University
- San Francisco State University
- St. John’s University
- St. Louis University (additional info: link)
- Texas State University
- Tulane University
- University of Alabama
- University of Alabama at Birmingham
- University at Buffalo (additional info: link)
- University of California at Berkeley
- University of Iowa
- University of Kansas
- University of Kentucky
- University of Mary Washington
- University of Massachusetts at Amherst
- University of New Hampshire
- University of North Carolina Charlotte
- University of North Carolina Pembroke
- University of San Francisco
- University of Texas San Antonio
- University of Washington Bothell
Presentations on Residential Curriculum
The following are presentations on residential curriculum that are publicly avaialbe online. The most useful links are in bold.
- Achieving the Immersive Residential Experience – University of Massachusetts at Amherst
- Building a Residential Curriculum – University of California at Berkeley
- Learning Outside the Classroom – University at Buffalo
- Residential Curriculum – Lehigh University
- Residential Curriculum – University of South Florida
- Residential Curriculum for Leadership and Social Change – San Francisco State University
- Residential Curriculum – RA Learning Modules – Texas State University